It is important to realize and understand that everyone is exposed to mold throughout their lives. Exposures to mold are virtually inevitable in everyday life because mold of one kind or another is ever-present in the indoor and outdoor environment. Thus, such exposures can be considered “unavoidable”, “tolerable”, or “acceptable” for the majority of healthy persons.

Understanding Mold

Mold grows throughout the natural as well as the built environment. Tiny particles of mold are present in both indoor and outdoor air. Mold produce microscopic cells called “spores” which are extremely tiny and spread easily through the air. This is how they reproduce. Mold spores are present through the indoor and outdoor air continually. When mold spores land on a damp spot indoors, they may begin growing and digesting whatever they are growing on in order to survive. There are mold that can grow on wood, paper, carpet, and foods.When excessive moisture or water accumulates indoors, mold growth will often occur, particularly if the moisture problem remains undiscovered or un-addressed. There is no practical way to eliminate all mold and mold spores in the indoor environment. The way to control indoor mold growth is to control moisture.

Controlling Moisture

The most critical step in solving a mold problem is to accurately identify and rectify the moisture sources that allowed the growth to occur. In order to prevent mold from growing, it is imperative that water damaged areas be dried within a 24-48 period. If mold is a problem in the home, the mold must be cleaned up and the excess water or moisture removed. There are many common mold is made with respect to their most common impact to human health. Many genera of molds have sources of excess moisture that can contribute to indoor mold growth. Some of the primary means species with varying characteristics. of moisture entry into homes and buildings are water leakage (such as roof or plumbing leaks), vapor migration, capillary movement, air infiltration, humidifier use, and inadequate venting of kitchen and bath humidity. Temperature must also be considered because of its role in moisture transfer and condensation. The key is to reduce indoor humidity and identify the molds’ point of origin.

Mold Testing Purposes

Contamination Sources

If the source of moisture is not easily detected, mold testing can prove beneficial. Often a roof leak or a

plumbing leak can be identified as the source. The difficulty arises when there is an odor present or when an

occupant shows signs of mold exposure but no visible mold is discovered.

Scope of Remediation/Restoration:

The area that is contaminated and the extent of the contamination will determine the scope of the remediation

required. Following the completion of the remediation process, mold testing should be performed to obtain


Mold Sampling Methods

A wide variety of analytical methods are available to investigators to study biological agents in indoor

environments. Since there are no generally accepted guidelines for fungi or bacteria, comparison with

reference samples is the most useful approach. Reference samples are usually outdoor samples and

samples from “non-complaint” areas. In general, indoor fungal concentrations should be similar to or lower

than outdoor levels. If fungi at a significant level are only found indoors, this often suggests indoor

amplification of the fungi. Furthermore, the detection of some fungi, even at low levels, may require further


The word “sample” means different things in different contexts. At times, investigators use the term to

designate an individual measurement (e.g., an air or source sample). However, a sample may also designate

a set of measurements (e.g., multiple measurements of some parameter that comprise a sample of size n). In

either case, the goal of sampling is to learn about entire populations by looking at subsets of the members of

the population.

There are several types of testing methods that can detect the presence of mold. They can be used to find

mold particles which are suspended in air, in settled dust, or growing on surfaces of building materials and

furnishings. Some methods can identify a portion of the types of live molds in a sampled environment.

Surface Sampling Methods

Surface sampling can be useful for differentiating between mold growth and stains, for identifying the type of

mold growth that may be present and, in some instances, identifying signs of mold growth in a general

vicinity. Surface sampling can improve the accuracy of the results and interpretation of the inspected

environment if sampled correctly, although not required. The following are the different types of surface

samples that are commonly used to perform a direct examination of a specific location:

Tape (or tape-lift)

These samples can be collected using clear adhesive tape or packing tape. For microscopic examination of

collected particles, adhesive tapes must be of good optical quality and compatible with any stains the

analytical laboratory may use on the specimens. Easily removed material is collected by touching the tape

gently to a test surface and removing the tape with a steady force.


These are portions of environmental materials (e.g., settled dust, sections of wall board, pieces of duct lining,

carpet segments, or return-air filters) tested to determine if they may contain or be contaminated with

biological agents. The objective of such sampling is to collect a portion of material small enough to be

transported conveniently and handled easily in the laboratory while still representing the material being

sampled. Samples obtained using this method can be analyzed using culturing or direct microscopy.


These are very similar to tape samples except for a sterile wipe (looks like a long Q-tip) is used to test an area

of suspected mold. Samples obtained using this method can be analyzed using culturing or direct microscopy.

Air Sampling Methods

Air samples are possibly the most common type of environmental sample that investigators collect to study

bioaerosols. The physics of removing particles from the air and the general principles of good sample

collection apply to all airborne materials, whether biological or other origin. Therefore, many of the basic

principles investigators use to identify and quantify other airborne particulate matter can be adapted to

bioaerosol sampling. Common to all aerosol samplers is consideration of collection efficiency. The following

are the two most common forms of air sampling methods:


The Micro5 Microcell uses spore trap cassettes in conjunction with a portable air pump to rapidly collect

airborne aerosols including mold, pollen and other particulates. Air is drawn through a small opening at the

top of the cassette and spores are trapped on a sticky surface inside the cassette.


These are similar to the Micro5 spore trap cassettes in that they are also used in conjunction with portable air

pumps. The difference is in the air flow sampling rate.

Data Interpretation

The term “data” can vary and may consist of the simple observation of fungal growth on a wall, analytical

measurements from hundreds of environmental samples, or the results of a survey of building occupants with

and without particular building-related conditions. Data interpretation is the process whereby investigators

make decisions on (a) the relevance to human exposure of environmental observations and measurements,

(b) the strength of associations between exposure and health status, and (c) the probability of current or

future risks. These interpretation steps are followed by decisions on what measures can be taken to interrupt

exposure and prevent future problems.

Remediation of Mold

Prevention of mold growth indoors is only possible if the factors that may allow it are identified and controlled.

When prevention has failed and visible growth has occurred in a home or building, restoration requires (a)

removal of porous materials showing extensive microbial growth, (b) physical removal of surface microbial

growth on non-porous materials to typical background levels, and (c) reduction of moisture to levels that do

not support microbial growth. Identification of the conditions that contributed to microbial proliferation in a

home or building is the most important step in remediation. No effective control strategy can be implemented

without a clear understanding of the events or building dynamics responsible for microbial growth.


Symptoms of Mold Exposure

The most common symptoms of mold exposure are runny nose, eye irritation, cough, congestion, and

aggravation of asthma. Individuals with persistent health problems that appear to be related to mold or other

types of air quality contaminant exposure should see their physicians for a referral to specialists who are

trained in occupational/environmental medicine or related specialties and are knowledgeable about these

types of exposures. Decisions about removing individuals from an affected area must be based on the results

of such medical evaluation. Since mold is naturally present in outdoor environments and we share the same

air between the indoors and the outdoors, it is impossible to eliminate.


Mold Recap: Ten Things You Should Know About Mold

1) Potential health effects and symptoms associated with mold exposures include allergic reactions,

asthma, and other respiratory problems.

2) There is no practical way to eliminate mold and mold spores in the indoor environment; the way to

control indoor mold growth is to control moisture.

3) If mold is a problem in your home or building, you must clean up the mold and eliminate sources of


4) The source of the water problem or leak must be repaired to prevent mold growth.

5) Indoor humidity must be reduced (to 30-60%) to decrease mold growth by: adequately venting

bathrooms, dryers, and other moisture-generating sources to the outside; using air conditioners and dehumidifiers;

increasing ventilation; and using exhaust fans whenever cooking, dishwashing and cleaning.

6) Clean and dry any damp or wet building materials and furnishings within 24-48 hours to prevent mold


7) Clean mold off of hard surfaces with water and detergent and dry completely.

8) Prevent condensation: reduce the potential for condensation on cold surfaces (e.g., windows, piping,

exterior walls, roof, or floors) by adding insulation.

9) In areas where there is a perpetual moisture problem, do not install carpeting.

10) Mold can be found almost anywhere; they can grow on virtually any substance, providing moisture is

present. There are molds that can grow on wood, paper, carpet, and foods.


Note: The only way to be sure of the presence of mold in the home is through lab testing. We strongly recommend lab testing for mold prior to the closing of your home, visual inspections can not and should not be relied upon as a definitive analysis for the presence of mold.

Failure to perform laboratory testing  for mold relieves Florida Master Home inspectors, inc and its officers and employees of any present or future liability. We will be glad to provide you with a free quote for lab testing.


References & Resources


Airborne Allergens, William Solomon, Guest Editor. Immunology & Allergy Clinics of North America,

Volume 9, Number 2, August 1989. W.B. Saunders Company, Publishers, The Curtis Center,

Independence Square West, Philadelphia, PA

19106-3399. This book may be out of print.

Bioaerosols: Assessment and Control, Janet Macher, Sc.D., M.P.H., Editor. 1999. ACGIH, 1330

Kemper Meadow Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45240-1634.

Bioaerosols, Harriet Burge, Ph.D. 1995. Lewis Publishers, 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca

Raton, FL 33431-9868.

Biological Contaminants in Indoor Environments, Morey, Feeley, Otten, Editors. 1990. ASTM, 1916

Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103. STP 1071.

Fungi and Bacteria in Indoor Air Environments: Health Effects, Detection and Remediation,

Proceedings from the International Conference, Saratoga Springs, NY October 6-7, 1994.

Health Implications of Fungi in Indoor Environments, Edited by R.A. Samson. 1994. Elsevier

Science, P.O. Box 945, Madison Square Station, New York, NY 10159-0945.

Indoor Air and Human Health, Gammage & Kaye. 1985. Lewis Publishers.

Microfungi, S.G. Gravesen, J.C. Frisvad, & R.A. Samson, published by Munksgaard.


Useful Websites

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists - information on IAQ and useful links.

American Industrial Hygiene Association - general IAQ information

California Environmental Protection Agency - California IAQ resources

Environmental Protection Agency - information regarding prevention and remediation of mold

New York State Department of Health - New York state recommendations for IAQ, indoor mold

inspections, remediation, and prevention

National Institutes of Health - information regarding environmental health issues, including IAQ

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences - information on mold

Remove mold for a healthy home